Home Improvement Expert Danny Lipford

Do You Need an Architect or a Designer?

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Architect working at drawing board.

One of the most common questions homeowners ask remodeling contractors is, “Should we hire an architect or a designer for our project?” For most small projects, such as enlarging a window opening or removing a non-bearing wall, the answer is no. The contractor and homeowner can handle both the design and construction end.

For large additions, whole-house renovations, and new kitchens, you should consider hiring an architect or design professional to help plan the project. A design pro can make sure the esthetic considerations meld with the structural requirements of the project and that the space is both liveable and aesthetically pleasing.

Here’s what architects, designers, kitchen specialists, and interior designers do and don’t do, what they charge and how you can pick the right one for your project.

About Architects

Architects are trained in design theory, engineering, and project management. A design for your project and a set of code compliant plans will cost from $65 to more than $150 per hour (rates vary by region and individual architect).

If you would like the architect to manage the project, solicit bids, choose the contractor and subcontractors, control money, and oversee work; they will charge an additional 5% to 10% of the cost of the project.

Architects are skilled at coming up with inventive ideas to solve complex design problems and at making sure a project is true to itself aesthetically (whether it’s classical or original in styling).

An addition, or other complicated project with lots of roof lines, really benefits from an architect’s vision and ability to visualize ideas three-dimensionally. So does an older home where you want to extend the existing historic look to new work. And, of course, so does a home where you want to make a one-of-a-kind statement.

You’ll often see the initials “AIA” after an architect’s name. This indicates membership in the American Institute of Architects. Licensing of architects is a separate process that is administrated by each state.

As project manager, an architect can keep an eye on the progression of work. They act not only as a point person to handle the inevitable problems that arise, but also as your advocate with the general contractor and the subcontractors.

Danny Lipford going over plans on job site with architect.

Dealing with Architects

Usually homeowners will hire an architect before the contractor is involved. After the architect meets with the homeowners to determine their needs, they will present a full set of plans for bid, including renderings of the outside of the structure and all building details from roof to foundation.

If extensive changes are made, which often arise once contractors start bidding on the project, the architect will redraw the plans for an additional fee.

Hiring an architect to oversee a project is the highest level of service you can buy, since you’re responsible for little more than writing the check. It can be a good solution for someone who doesn’t want to deal with a contractor or get involved in the day-to-day decision making process during the course of construction.

While it might be nice, in most cases hiring the architect who designed the plans to oversee an addition or remodel isn’t necessary. So if you’re on a budget, it makes more sense to handle dealing with the contractor yourself.

About Designers

Designers usually do not have academic training in architecture and engineering but are experienced in interior space planning and simple additions. If you’re remodeling a kitchen or adding a family room, a designer may have all the skills you need.

Designers typically charge $35 to $70 per hour, with the price for a full set of plans for an averge addition costing around $1,500.

A designer’s plans will be reviewed by a structural engineer to make sure beams won’t sag and floors won’t bounce, something architects often do as a precaution as well, even though they have some engineering training. Designers typically don’t offer project management services.

Homeowner matching paint samples to fabric with interior designer.

Licensed Designers

Laws governing licensing of design services vary from state to state. All states require that architects be licensed, but the licensing of designers is a gray area, and many states exempt the design of single-family homes from architectural licensing. To find out the policy in your state, call the licensing board or ask your contractor.

No matter what the policy of your state is, check your homeowner’s insurance policy as well. You might have to beef it up, because professional liability or malpractice is rarely covered. In the event of a costly repair where it’s unclear if the designer or contractor is to blame, you could end up stuck with some of the bill.

Some designers work for remodeling contractors. These companies, called “design/build firms,” offer the complete remodeling package everything from plans to paint. Generally, the design of the project is included in the overall price.

Dealing with Designers

A designer or design/build firm can handle most residential remodels. And the designer and contractor typically operate as a team, not adversaries.

After initial meetings with the homeowners, the designer and contractor return for a second meeting with a partial set of drawings often just a rendering of the outside walls, or elevation, and a rough floor plan. The contractor will price out the plans only after the homeowners approve the preliminary drawings.

The designer is commissioned to finish the drawings once the budget is approved. This helps avoid sticker shock when the final bill gets presented. But even in a worst case scenario, in which a full plan set has to be redrawn, the cost is about half what an architect will charge.

There are some drawbacks to using a designer. Regulations covering designers vary from state to state, so you’re not necessarily guaranteed a basic level of skill and education. And, unlike architects, designers are not always insured against negligence or malpractice.

Hiring an Architect or Designer

After you’ve made a decision between an architect and designer, you have to find one to work with. Ask family, friends and neighbors you trust for recommendations. Then look at their last few jobs and interview the homeowners.

Remodeling contractors are another good source or architects and designers. Since they are responsible for building what that designer draws, they won’t recommend someone who does not know what they’re doing or that they have had trouble with in the past.

Homeowner looking at cabinet wood options with kitchen designer.

Other Design Professionals

Thought you had the architect/designer dilemma figured out? Think again! There are several additional types of designers to consider:

  • Certified kitchen designers (CKD)
  • certified bath designers (CBD)
  • Interior designers (ASID)

The National Kitchen & Bath Association certifies kitchen and bath designers after they complete course work and document years of field experience. They charge $40 to $75 per hour and work at least 10 to 20 hours on your plan with the contractor. Many certified designers work with a kitchen and bath showroom or a cabinet dealer. You’ll also find them on staff at home centers.

Certified kitchen and bath designers bring a focused expertise to the work space, traffic patterns, electrical layout, and cabinet and appliance clearances; all of which make kitchens and bathrooms different animals when it comes to remodeling.

Like architects or designers, kitchen and bath designers draw a complete set of up to code plans. And, like an architect, many will provide project management for a percentage of the gross cost of the remodel.

Certified kitchen and bath designers are aware of structural basics, though they should consult an engineer if they propose any structural changes in the walls or floors.

Certified interior designers are what most people call interior decorators. The certifying group is the American Society of Interior Designers.

Generally interior designers do not present building plans to a contractor, but they will consult on space reallocation and assist in designing the finished interior space.

For a $30 to $75 fee, depending on the range of services provided, interior designers also research, shop, and present you with decorating samples or introduce you to product lines for such things as furniture and lighting.



Please Leave a Comment

14 Comments on “Do You Need an Architect or a Designer?”

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  1. Roy Says:
    November 23rd, 2011 at 4:59 pm

    If you’re spending over, say, 10k on your project, do yourself a favor and hire an architect. Or learn the hard way. You get what you pay for. I’ve had bad experiences with ‘designers’ and contractors alike. Designers aren’t legally responsible for anything that they do (no recourse for the client, oops), and they won’t / can’t manage the construction. If you don’t have a competent professional overseeing the construction then the contractor will take this opportunity to extend the project timeline and budget. From what I understand, this has never NOT happened. There’s certainly no code of ethics binding these guys.

  2. James Says:
    May 7th, 2012 at 2:17 pm

    I work for a local General contractor with many lic. across the board there is not a project he wont take on this company offers full service from permits and plan drafting to all construction and handyman service. We hear all to often the famous complaint “the contractor will take this opportunity to extend the project timeline and budget. From what I understand, this has never NOT happened. There’s certainly no code of ethics binding these guys” While over the past ten years contractors have been poping up like wildflowers everyone and there brother no is a contractor there are still some of the orignial true Craftsman left look for a company who offers many services seams to be a kind person in general and look for a history 20 + years in buisness and thats in buisness not in the trades

  3. Margaret Spencer Says:
    January 6th, 2014 at 11:23 am

    I have a family home in Washington County that is way over a hundred years old. I want to restore it. It will be a major undertakig. It was a basic 2 maybe 3 room house with porches. Over the years those porches were closed in to make rooms and a bath added, a laundry room/hafe bath and one new room was added. The rooms are very choped up. Roof is Tin,has an old doubel fireplace/not useable. I just need some good advice where to start.

  4. Keith at Studio KZ Says:
    February 3rd, 2014 at 7:22 pm

    Hi Margaret,

    Hopefully someone has reached out to you to help you with your family home in Washington County. You are correct; a sensitive restoration is indeed a major undertaking and cannot be accomplished by just anyone. Considering the content of the article, you will certainly need some detailed drawings of the existing house and of design authentic to the history and context of the house. For those things, you will need an architect or a designer. You stand a far greater chance of finding a qualified professional in the licensed architecture realm, as architects, through their training, have had to study historic styles. Legally, you probably won’t need a licensed architect unless you’re planning on some structural changes (in which case an engineer will usually stamp the drawings). In older houses such as yours, structural changes are likely. It is much more probable that an architect will understand the complexities of a detailed restoration project. Your jurisdiction may require a licensed professional anyway if the house is on a historic register. In sum, I’d suggest starting with a round of interviews with architects, then follow up with designers.

  5. Nandini Says:
    May 20th, 2014 at 9:34 am

    I am not sure if I need an architect or an interior designer for remodeling my home. Or both. Does it help to have both? Or will it complicate things? I don’t want to be charged double. Can they both sit down together and discuss what they would offer? Then, itemize the job so that I won’t have to double pay? I will be making some structural changes and would like the advice of a designer for color, fabric, etc.

  6. Elisa Says:
    May 23rd, 2014 at 11:52 am

    I am an interior designer, and as there is a lot of confusion about the industry, I would like to clear up a few things.

    HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN
    Design is literally as old as mankind; everything we produce is designed. As the building has become more complex, so have the professions: architecture, interior decorators, interior designer, landscape architects, engineers, and so on. Architecture has long history, and has been redefined time and again. There have been “architects” who have designed everything on a property, from the landscape down to the dining chairs.

    The term interior decoration appeared in 1807 and interior design appeared in 1927. Because they are so new, they are still being defined, and we are working toward recognition, just as architects did about a hundred years ago.

    CURRENT DEFINITIONS
    Architecture – the practice of designing and constructing a building as a whole

    Interior design – the practice of planning and supervising the design and execution of architectural interiors and their furnishings

    Interior decorators – are concerned with surface treatments and aesthetics, and may or may not be formally trained

    FINDING A QUALIFIED INTERIOR DESIGNER
    Look for a 2 to 4 year degree from a CIDA accredited school and NCIDQ certification; these are the major avenues to becoming a professional, well informed designer. A designer must have at least 2-4 years of full-time professional experience under supervision to be eligible for the NCIDQ exams. There are a multitude of other certifications, but they are not widely recognized. The major professional organizations (equivalent to architecture’s AIA) are ASID and IIDA – these provide continuing education among other things, but they do NOT provide certification. The NKBA (National Kitchen & Bath Association) is the go-to organization for that specialty, and they do provide certification.

    COST
    The going hourly rate for a designer is $100; more for a principal in larger firms or otherwise more experienced professionals. Some designers charge hourly, some charge a percentage of the project cost, some vary; this will be negotiated in the contract.

    FINAL THOUGHTS
    CIDA accredited programs include building codes, basic building systems, sustainability, professional practice (eg contracts and project management), environmental psychology, history of architecture, and history of interiors and furniture styles. Interior designers have actually led the way in evidence-based design as opposed to theory alone, which is a fantastic development for the whole industry and society as a whole. They are really focused on how a space functions and feels.

    In an ideal world, a project like Margaret’s would involve a team comprised of an architect, interior designer, and a construction manager; Nandini didn’t give enough details to say either way, but you can make that question a part of the interview process when shopping around – if they brush off the idea of collaboration, move on. And Margaret, DEFINITELY look for design professionals who specialize in historical restoration and preservation. Ask for proof of insurance. Always work with a contract. Get everything in writing. Everything. :)

    Best of luck!

  7. Alireza Abbasi Says:
    September 1st, 2014 at 10:25 am

    Hi
    I want to have a dream house

  8. Jason Says:
    November 25th, 2014 at 3:54 am

    Hello. I recently purchased a home that I’m planning to do a pretty extensive remodel to. The remodel is alone is expected to fall in the $700K-1M range. Being such a large project, I sought an opinion from two local architects that I felt would be good candidates for the job. After meeting with the first architect, he visited my home once to preview the property. I met with his designers once as well where they gave me a roughy sketch the architect came up with…which was in all honesty just scribble on a piece of paper. He did sketch a front view of the home for a visual. After a month or so without hearing from him I consulted a second architect for a different opinion. I never signed a contract with the first architect then out of nowhere received a bill for $2,450.00. I honestly feel robbed/taken advantage of. The bill break down shows him spending X hours at $180/hour, the head designer spending X hours at $140/hour…and the regular designer spending X hours at $110/hour. I’m not exactly sure what to do. Please give me your opinion.

  9. Mary Says:
    January 2nd, 2015 at 3:38 pm

    Hi, My house is kind of backward. Front door is in the back and back door in front with a open car garage. Everything is made by mobile home parts I believe. My husband bought this house before I met him. I dont like how everything is. I was wondering how do I go about knocking all down inside and redo it all? Or just fix up and sell which I doubt anyone would buy.

  10. Kevin Says:
    January 5th, 2015 at 12:27 pm

    Hello. Really enjoyed the perspectives in these postings. A couple items I think may help are listed per posting.

    Margaret, Historic homes have many challenges. First, decide if you want to “restore” the building back to it’s original state, or renovate to address the functionality and appearance. The other point is to determine what kind of budget you are able and willing to put forth. It may not be worth the cost. If it is, I would recommend locating a design / build firm (architect / contractor) that specializes in historic projects. They can guide you. Also touch base with your neighbors and see who they have used and how satisfied they were with the outcome.

    Jason, easy questions ….. did you sign an agreement with the architect that sent you the invoices? Or, at any time did you direct the architect to perform design services either in an email, etc.? That really should answer your question on the situation.

    Our team has dealt with almost all these scenarios and, as always, the time, cost, and quality issues surface quickly. A good architect can help direct you for what you need based on your scope of work. I have many times redirected a potential client to the services of a general contractor and / or interior designer because the project did NOT need a high level of expertise from an architect.

    To give you an idea of one architectural perspective on services I would invite you to check out http://www.professionalbuildingresources.com

  11. JUDY Says:
    January 19th, 2015 at 12:07 am

    I have an existing restaurant I would to be redesign so that it(dinning area and bathrooms) would have looks completely different from its old look.
    I need to add a guest room and a bar to it and kitchen will remain the same. Should I hire interior designer or architect before the contractor begin the work?

  12. Dave Says:
    January 22nd, 2015 at 9:04 pm

    ATTENTION:::IMPORTANT INFO FOR HOME OWNERS

    Hi folks,
    I have been a contractor for twenty years and after reading these comments I feel the need to respond to ROY’S misleading, ignorant, and clearly recycled well thought out post (that last part is sarcasm). The need also stems from the past 5 weeks I have had.

    There is a flip side to the contractor/home owner relationship. Now I am a professional, very anal retentive, very personable, will bend over literally backwards for my clients, and I go above and beyond to achieve perfection in my work and I make sure that the customer is always happy!! Yes I have a code of conduct it is pride in my work, doing a safe job that is done correctly and overall I want to see that smile on the home owners face at the end. I don’t advertise. No need all my business is repeat and from references. That being said there are disreputable contractors out there AND there are just as many home owners/business owners that try to get work out of you for free, don’t want to pay for the work, weasle out of their end, that don’t stay true to their word or commitments. Funny those stories never make the news.

    Weekend warriors with their little measuring tapes and brand new tools are the worst. Nothing frustrates us more than someone that constantly changes the plans and thinks that it is no big deal (except when these changes will cost them). Not to mention if you stop me to discuss an idea that you have this stops progress which is lost time and money for both of us. Trust me, we don’t like to do the same task twice, let alone three or four times. If I am building offices in your commercial property please don’t tell me how to build it and say all I have to do is this. Trust me it is a lot more involved than you think or know and that little change may affect everything down the line for the rest of the project. Now the whole plan may have changed and this change, more times than not, increases what I projected and I eat this.

    Well multiply this by ten little changes, believe me this adds up. Not to mention I may now be going back to readjust how and where three other walls are anchored and now possibly your door layout changes or the entire ceiling layout has changed which may require more or less material. More wasted time ordering material and me having to leave and get it, then they get upset because I ask for additional money. It is too little to have delivered and if there is extra material you are gonna be upset. I love and will always discuss with owners the changes and what is involved but DON’T over simplify our work because all it looks like to you is cutting some wood/metal and swinging the wall a bit. I could go through and explain why it is NOT just that simple on here but that would take me off point.

    I am dealing with a CPA right now that wanted me to give him a bid based on him helping. This is impossible. 1. I do not know your level of expertise/experience. 2. I am not insured for you. The man had the audasity to ask me to leave an employee home so, 3. You are not as fast as my guys and I am not going to let a valuable employee starve so you can save a buck and feel as if you have contributed or achieve some goal on your bucket list. How about this I am excellent in math and both my parents were accountants but would you let me come in and start to do your book keeping and do your clients taxes come April 15th.

    Let’s not mention as I am working on your job I have helped you get wholesales prices on materials, instead of you going to Lowes or Home Depot, which has saved you thousands of dollars and better quality. I have hooked you up with the plumbers, electricians, HVAC guys etc… so that you got bids from them at the lower end of the spectrum. What does this do? Again save you thousands of more dollars and you have piece of mind because of course the people I have recommended I know the quality of their work. I am not trying to make either of our lives miserable.

    So when I am on your project and you ask me to stop and give you a bid on an additional piece of work that you were gonna do, DO NOT TELL US (ESPECIALLY WITH A SNEER AND CHUCKLE) THAT’S WAY TOO MUCH, AFTER I APPARENTLY JUST WASTED A COUPLE OF HOURS OF MY LIFE DISCUSSING, MEASURING, FIGURING LABOR AND PRICING MATERIALS FOR YOU!!! Acceptable response, “I didn’t realize it would be that much, maybe I will just do it myself. I’m sorry I appreciate you taking the time to look at for me.”

    You can also begin negotiations again I will gladly explain how I got to this number. Trust me, my tools and my guys are already there and I took the time to bid on it I would clearly like the opportunity but don’t be surprised in 6 months from now you decide you want me to do it and the price has gone up. This is not out of spite!!!!Materials increase not to mention I had everything and everyone there setup ready to go that costs money!!!

    Side point if at some point in your life you have hired a company to build a home for you, and years later you buy a distressed property and you want to flip it. Again I will gladly help you plan everything you envision while saving you as much money as possible. Please don’t tell me though that YOU have BUILT a house before. No, you picked fixtures, wall colors, shingle style etc… So when I inform you what NEEDS done and WHEN, WHY, and HOW, PLEASE DON’T TELL ME THAT THIS OR THAT is the right way to do it. Again I am always up to and more than happy to explain what is going to HAVE to be done and when, more importantly I explain why it must be done and in that order, so it resonates with you, has meaning, and you are an informed home owner.

    By the way it took that person an extremely long time to finish what he had me bid. Do you think it made me feel better that he told me how much harder it was than he thought and he didn’t realize how involved it actually was and do you think the fact that I seen the end result and it didn’t look good at all and it wasn’t done correctly????? No it did not and does not!!! Unfortunately it’s situations like this that now I or another contractor has to go in and fix it and a lot of times it may cost more to fix than it would’ve been to do it correctly in the first place, plus it is a pain in the *** fixing peoples mistakes it is more frustrating for the fact it could’ve been avoided.

    Thanks for my rant but please take this into consideration next time you have a project.

    I would LOVE to know what Roy does for a living. Roy, maybe you should look at yourself as to why you have problems with contractors. Probably the prejudice you have going in, you overall attitude, but most importantly and ultimately what does it say about you that you consistently are a poor judge of character. That’s not an attack just a observation.

    Please comment if this helped or anyone appreciates this post. Comment if you agree or disagree.

  13. Official Comment:

    Ben Erickson Says:
    January 23rd, 2015 at 9:30 am

    Dave,
    As a former contractor and professional woodworker for 25 years, who did quality work, I feel your pain. I, too, occasionally had clients who were difficult to deal with, however, for the most part my experiences were positive.

    Since I no longer have the time to tackle large remodeling projects on my home myself, I have hired contractors in the past few years to remodel my bathroom and kitchen. Both contractors came highly recommended and both did lousy jobs. They rarely came to check on the work or progress, wouldn’t return phone calls, took weeks longer than they said, made glaring mistakes and then got very upset when I asked them to fix it right. Had I not been in construction myself and known what to look for, I hate to think what the finished results would have been.

    The bottom line is there are both conscientious and unscrupulous people in the world, some are contractors and some are homeowners.

  14. Dave Says:
    January 23rd, 2015 at 5:50 pm

    Ben,
    You are exactly right. Most of my experiences with homeowners I love and enjoy. I feel so bad for home owners and business owners when I come in and see a job that was done wrong. You know what it is like anywhere I go visiting relatives, dinner, hell just driving around I just constantly spot things in need of repair or jobs that were not done correctly. Hahaha. There are a lot of guys out there that call themselves contractors and are in no way even a handyman at best. I liken it to that it would be the equivilant to myself studying martial arts and then telling people that I am a Ninja hahaha.

    Yesterday I came home from another horrible day with this business owner and the original bid was for a little demo, some framing, and drywall tape and finished for 8100. Just labor. Basically six solid days. Any additional work would be billed accordingly from day one he has changed everything and from day one the architectural plans have been a moot issue. He will make changes hour to hour and doesn’t realize or think he should pay for these changes, we are so far outside of what I bid. I’m not charging for the talk time but you keep stopping me and my one guy for about three hours a day. I have 364 man hours here already and not done framing. Been on him to get an HVAC guy for a month he thinks I can just frame in a ceiling with no knowledge of where the returns go. Metal framing, it was supposed to be Chicago grid. He want me to hang all drywall. I keep explaining can’t until your framing inspection so I can hang one side but not until ceilings are laid out, he just don’t get it when I have explained everything to him no less than five times with everything. This guy is unbelievable. I have already done so many extras for free which normally I am happy to do.

    I just want some people to read that there are two sides to that argument. I am now working for free!!! And at 50% completion this guy don’t get it. He figures I am doing doors, all the trim, wants me to stain glass in these doors. I have told him that was no where in my bid. His answer well you knew there would be extra stuff you would have to do and that the doors and trim complete the job. Yes but I didn’t bid that!!!! Wow!! And what extras he just assumes are free. Now if I am mudding and the electricians made a hole yeah I’ll fixing it for free but not what he is envisioning. By all rights I could charge him and he could charge the electricians, but I am not petty.I don’t wanna be on a job any longer than need call me crazy but food in my belly and gas to get to the job are kinda a necessity.

    But Roy’s negative statement just set me off generalizing every contractor. And like I said you never see homeowner rips of contractor or refuses to pay stories on the news that doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen often. We trust suck it up and move on. But I bet ya if I walked on this guy ( which I never have or would) next thing you would see would be my face on the Pittsburgh evening news.

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